Ibn Haldun University, Philosophy Department provides multiple and pluralistic masters program, encompassing Ancient, Islamic, Turkish and Western (Continental) philosophical traditions. Students will have the opportunity to specialize in any field of philosophy by selecting related courses. This graduate program is designed as an initial phase for the doctorate program planned to be opened in the near future. With it’s multi directional formation, the program aims to educate and give vision to candidates, enabling them to analyze Islamic philosophy not only as a historical phenomenon, but also do research in the context of contemporary philosophy. Philosophy Department enhances it’s scientific strategy accordingly.
Head of The Department:
Scope of the Program:
The program brings together theories and perspectives arising from the history of philosophy. taking into account the classical and modern depates. In this respect the program is designed to provide participants with in-depth background of history of philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Turkish thought and philosophy, Continental philosophy including phenomenologic method. Some of the research areas are:
- History of Philosophy
- Contemporary Philosophy
- Islamic Philosophy
- Turkish Philosophy
- Mystical or Sufi Philosophy
Who Should Participate?
This program may particularly be useful for:
- those who have some sort of philosophical background, but seek to increase their skills in different areas of philosophy
- those who have an interest in philosophy and want to improve the interest with a philosophical profession
- those who are just graduated from universities and look for career opportunities in different fields;
- those who want to pursue an academic career.
|PHIL 501||Research Methods and Publication Ethics||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL …||Departmental Elective Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL …||Departmental Elective Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL …||Departmental Elective Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL …||Departmental Elective Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL …||Departmental Elective Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL …||Departmental Elective Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 599||MA Thesis||0||0||0||30|
|PHIL 599||MA Thesis||0||0||0||30|
|PHIL 501||Research Methods and Publication Ethics||3||0||3||8|
|PROGRAM ELECTIVE COURSES|
|TURKISH AND ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY|
|PHIL 510||Islamic Philosophy I: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 511||Theories of Knowledge in the First Classical Period||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 512||Theories of Knowledge in the Second Classical Period||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 513||Suhrawardy and Ishraqi Philosophy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 514||Ethical Theories in Islamic Tradition||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 515||Mutazilite Thinkers||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 517||Ibn Sina||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 519||Tahafut Tradition||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 520||Averroes And Averroism||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 521||Major Andalusian Philosophers||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 522||Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 523||Critical Philosophy in Islamic Thought||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 524||Contemporary Islamic Thought: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 525||Akbarite School||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 526||Classical Turkish Philosophy I: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 527||Classical Turkish Philosophy II: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 530||Contemporary Turkish Thought: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 531||Early Turkic Thought And Mythology: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 532||Theories of Metaphysics in the First Classical Period||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 533||Theories of Metaphysics in the Second Classical Period||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 534||Islamic Philosophy II: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 540||Early Greek Philosophy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 541||Platos’s Earlier Dialogues||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 542||Platos’s Middle Dialogues||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 543||Platos’s Later Dialogues||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 544||Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 545||Aristotle’s Metaphysics||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 547||Ethical Theories in Ancient Philosophy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 560||Medevial Christian Philosophy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 561||Ethical Theories in Western Philosophy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 565||Hegel and Husserl in Phenomenology||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 569||Husserl’s Logical Investigations||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 570||Husserl’s Ideas||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 571||Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 572||Husserl: Inner Time Consciousness||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 574||Marxism and Critical Theory||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 575||Rousseau and Philosophy of Enlightment||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 576||German Idealism||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 577||Continental Rationalists|
|PHIL 578||British Empiricists|
|DISCIPLINES AND THEMES IN PHILOSOPHY|
|PHIL 580||Theory of Knowledge: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 581||Metaphysics: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 583||Philosophy of Biology||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 584||The Problem of Evil in the History of Philosophy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 585||Foundations of Democracy||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 586||Philosophy Of Language: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 587||Philosophy of Civilization||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 589||Philosophy of Science||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 590||Political Philosophy: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 591||Moral Philosophy: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 592||Historical Sources of Western Thought||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 593||Philosophy of Religion: Advanced Course||3||0||3||8|
|PHIL 594||Issues in Science and Religion||3||0||3||8|
1) To graduate from Philosophy Thesis Master Program, 21 credits in total and 8 courses having 124 ECTS which includes seven courses and one seminer course must be taken. Two of these courses are compulsory and six of them are elective. Moreover, as required by the Multilingualism Policy, requirements below must be fulfilled for graduation.
2) According to the decision of the Senate regarding Multilingualism Policy on 24.09.2018, some level of proficiency in English, Turkish and Arabic ( or in another language except for Arabic) is required as a condition for graduation for the students of the graduate programs subject to this policy.
a- B1 level proficiency in English, B1 level proficiency in Turkish and A2 level proficiency in Arabic are required for PhD Program in Economics. Since the language courses offered in this program will be opened as non-credit, reserving the condition to pass them successfully, grades gained from these courses will not be added to the Grade Point Average.
b- Students can fulfill the graduation requirement regarding the language courses by either attending preparation program before program course period (if offered by the Program) or taking language courses along with their program courses during the program semester and passing these language courses successfully. Students who prove their proficiency by language test scores that are approved by the University will be considered as fulfilling graduation requirement.
Regarding the language courses, the students are provided with two options;
First option: The course is taught 1 hour a day for 5 days a week (in total: 5 hours a week) between 08:00-09:00 in the morning.
Second option: The students may take the language course for 2 hours a day for 5 days a week (in total: 10 hours a week).
The number of courses that should be taken to fulfill the required proficiency levels by the programs is stated below:
For B1 level in Turkish and in English: Students must either select the First Option for 3 semesters or select the First Option for 1 semester and the Second Option for 1 semester (2 semesters in total) and pass them.
For A2 level in Arabic: Students must either select the First Option for 2 semesters or the Second Option for 1 semester and pass them.
Notice: Students will only register in language courses that conform with their levels, which will be decided after the placement test held by the Language School.
|ARA 501||Basic Arabic I||1||4||0||5||*|
|ARA 502||Basic Arabic II||1||4||0||5||*|
|ARA 503||Intermediate Arabic I||1||4||0||5||*|
|ARA 504||Intermediate Arabic II||1||4||0||5||*|
|ARA 505||Advanced Arabic I||1||4||0||5||*|
|ARA 506||Advanced Arabic II||1||4||0||5||*|
|ARA 507||Intensive Basic Arabic||2||8||0||10||*|
|ARA 508||Intensive Intermediate Arabic||2||8||0||10||*|
|FRE 501||Basic French I||1||4||0||5||*|
|FRE 502||Basic French II||1||4||0||5||*|
|FRE 503||Intermediate French I||1||4||0||5||*|
|FRE 504||Intermediate French II||1||4||0||5||*|
|GER 501||Basic German I||1||4||0||5||*|
|GER 502||Basic German II||1||4||0||5||*|
|GER 503||Intermediate German I||1||4||0||5||*|
|GER 504||Intermediate German II||1||4||0||5||*|
|GRE 501||Basic Greek I||1||4||0||5||*|
|GRE 502||Basic Greek II||1||4||0||5||*|
|HEB 501||Basic Hebrew I||1||4||0||5||*|
|HEB 502||Basic Hebrew II||1||4||0||5||*|
|LAT 501||Basic Latin I||1||4||0||5||*|
|LAT 502||Basic Latin II||1||4||0||5||*|
|PERS 501||Basic Persian I||1||4||0||5||*|
|PERS 502||Basic Persian II||1||4||0||5||*|
|PERS 503||Intermediate Persian I||1||4||0||5||*|
|PERS 504||Intermediate Persian II||1||4||0||5||*|
|PERS 507||Intensive Basic Persian||2||8||0||10||*|
|PERS 508||Intensive Intermediate Persian||2||8||0||10||*|
|SPA 501||Basic Spanish I||1||4||0||5||*|
|SPA 502||Basic Spanish II||1||4||0||5||*|
|SPA 503||Intermediate Spanish I||1||4||0||5||*|
|SPA 504||Intermediate Spanish II||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 501||Basic Ottoman Turkish||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 502||Intermediate Ottoman Turkish||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 503||Advanced Ottoman Turkish I||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 504||Advanced Ottoman Turkish II||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 505||Ottoman Paleography and Diplomatica||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 506||Advanced Readings in Ottoman Historical Texts||1||4||0||5||*|
|TLL 507||Intensive Basic Ottoman Turkish||2||8||0||10||*|
|TLL 508||Intensive Intermediate Ottoman Turkish||2||8||0||10||*|
|TUR 501||Basic Modern Turkish I||1||4||0||5||*|
|TUR 502||Basic Modern Turkish II||1||4||0||5||*|
|TUR 503||Intermediate Modern Turkish I||1||4||0||5||*|
|TUR 504||Intermediate Modern Turkish II||1||4||0||5||*|
|TUR 505||Advanced Readings in Modern Turkish I||1||4||0||5||*|
|TUR 506||Advanced Readings in Modern Turkish II||1||4||0||5||*|
|TUR 507||Intensive Basic Modern Turkish||2||8||0||10||*|
|TUR 508||Intensive Intermediate Modern Turkish||2||8||0||10||*|
|*Approval of School of Languages|
PHIL 500 Seminar
The aim of this course is to widen students’ perceptive and awareness of topics of interest to philosophy through seminars offered by faculty, graduating thesis students and invited guests from academia. Each graduate student who prepares to defend her/his thesis is expected to give a seminar related to his/her thesis topic.
PHIL 501 Research Methods and Publication Ethics
This course aims to provide students with methods for carrying out scientific research such as how to pursue the scientific problems, how to use materials, how to discuss findings, how to make references in a paper etc.; the students will be knowledgeable about the topics such as publishing ethics, education and ethics, ethical justification.
Elective Courses of PHIL 510-539 Turkish and Islamic Philosophy
PHIL 510 Islamic Philosophy I: Advanced Course
Islamic philosophy is one of the major philosophical traditions. This course introduces the theological background, translations movements, and main schools of Islamic philosophy an advanced level.
PHIL 511 Theories of Knowledge in the First Classical Period
We divide Islamic thought into two periods: The period of mutaqaddimeen and mutaakhireen. The first one is both periods of formation and of becoming classic. What knowledge is, source of knowledge, the possibility of knowledge, truth, intuition, concept, nafs are the main themes of the course. We focus on the epistemological theories of philosophers such as al- Farabi, İbn Sina, QadiAbd al-Jabbar, and Bakıllani.
PHIL 512 Theories of Knowledge in the Second Classical Period
This course is about the second classical period of Islamic philosophy and close examination of theories of knowledge of Juweinî, Ghazali, İbn Rushd, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Sayyid Sharif al- Jurjanî, and Qonawî.
PHIL 513 Suhrawardy and Ishraqi Philosophy
This course focuses on the philosophical characteristics of Ishraqi philosophy and its important representatives such as Suhrawardy, Molla Sadra, etc.
PHIL 514 Ethical Theories in Islamic Tradition
This course discusses ethical theories in Islamic Tradition from different branches of Islamic thought. The literature of Islamic ethical thought consists of the works belong the various disciplines such as theology (kalam), Sufism, and philosophy. After dealing with, the relation between ethics and religion in the context of kalam, the concept of kamâl (perfection) in the context of Sufism, we focus on the philosophical theories of the figures such as Nafsani, Abu Zayd el-Balkhî ve Abu Bakr Zakariya al-Râzi (Razes), Kindi, Avicenna, Ibn Miskawayh, Tusi.
PHIL 515 Mutazilite Thinkers
Mu’tazila is known as the Islamic school which founds kalam (Islamic theology). It is not only important for theology, but also for Islamic philosophy in general. This course introduces the school of Mu’tazila and examines philosophical and theological theories of its leading figures such as Wasil bin Ata, Nazzam, Jahiz, and Qadi Abd al-Jabbar.
PHIL 516 Farabi
Farabi is a major Islamic philosopher. This course focuses on logic, ethics, and metaphysics. Students read selected texts from his essential works.
PHIL 517 Ibn Sina
Ibn Sina is one of the greatest philosophers of all time. This course focuses on his theories ranged from ethics to metaphysics. Students read selected texts from his important works.
PHIL 518 Ghazali
Ghazali is a theologian, philosopher, and a great Islamic scholar; he is the most famous critic of falasifa. This course introduces both his criticism of falasifa and his theoretical contributions to various fields of philosophy and theology.
PHIL 519 Tahafut Tradition
Tahâfut is a series of works of polemic spanning centuries after Ghazali in the Islamic World. Ghazali wrote a book entitled Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of Philosophers) in order to show that philosophers erred in metaphysical matters. The writing of tahafut continued after Ghazali. This course examines the polemical works of various writers of tahâfut such as Ghazali, Averroes, Alaaddin Tûsi, and Hocazade.
PHIL 520 Averroes and Averroism
As B. Russell said, Averroes is a new beginning for West. His ideas about metaphysics, epistemology, and the relation between religion and philosophy have been very crucial for the course and development of Western thought. This course examines both his philosophy and his influence on the schools of Paris, Bologna, and Padua in Europe, which played a very important role in the emergence of modern philosophy.
PHIL 521 Major Andalusian Philosophers
This course introduces leading philosophers of Andalus such as Ibn Bajja, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, etc. in focusing on their essential philosophical works.
PHIL 522 Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah
Ibn Khaldun is one of the most important philosophers of Islam, the first historical thinker of the history of philosophy, and arguably the founder father of modern social sciences. This course focuses only on Ibn Khaldun’s Muqaddimah and explores his philosophical method and his theory of umran, his theory of knowledge, metaphysics, morality, and his perspectives of the economy in relation to his predecessors.
PHIL523 Critical Philosophy in Islamic Thought
This course focuses on the thinkers who had critical and negative attitudes to falsafa in Islamic thought such as Ibn Taymıyya, Ibn Kayyım al Javziyya, Ghazali, Ibn Khaldun, and some mystical thinkers.
PHIL 524 Contemporary Islamic Thought: Advanced Course
This course examines the problem of modernization – Westernization, the relationship between religion and modernization, the change in Islamic thought and the effect of these processes in Muslim societies as well as basic questions, concepts, ideas, and schools in contemporary Islamic thought in relation to contemporary Turkish thought. It explores the evolving process of the Islamic world from the classical period to modernity. This course examines the following thinkers: Said Halim Pasha, Babanzade, Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Muhammad İqbal, İzmirli İsmail Hakkı, Afgani, Musa Bigiyef, Malik Nabi, Abduh and Rashid Rida.
PHIL 525 Akbarite School
Akbariyyah is a Sufi and philosophical school attributed to Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, also known as The Greatest Master. Ibn Arabi, especially with his view of the unity of being (wahdah al-wujoud), has been very influential in Turkish thought throughout history. This course examines the metaphysical theories of Ibn Arabi, his disciple Qonevi and Davud al-Kayserî.
PHIL 526 Classical Turkish Philosophy I: Advanced Course
This course examines the quiddity of Turkish thought, its conceptual framework, the methods for studying it, its relation to Islamic thought as well as its process of development from Seljuqs, through Ottaman Empire, to the republic period. Sadraddin Qonevi, Davud al-Kaysari, Molla Fanari, Kafiyaji, Hocazadah are the philosophers as topics of the course.
PHIL 527 Classical Turkish Philosophy II: Advanced Course
This course examines the second half of the Ottoman Turkish thought until 19. century. Kemal Pashazadah, Tashkoprizadah, Qinalizadah, Galanbawi, Haji Khalifa, Yanyali Esad Efendi, Mehmed Shirvani are the thinkers as the topics of the course.
PHIL 528 Kemalpaşazade
This course focuses primarily on two Ottoman Turkish thinkers Kemalpashazade and explores his philosophical and theological ideas.
PHIL 529 Taşköprüzade
Taşköprüzade is a major Ottoman Turkish philosopher, who wrote extensively on metaphysics, division of sciences, and morality. This course analyzes his ideas in the context of fundamental disciplines of philosophy.
PHIL 530 Contemporary Turkish Thought: Advanced Course
This course examines the philosophical and political ideas of the Turkish thinkers from 19-20. Century at the graduate level. Said Halim Paşa, Babanzade, Elmalılı Hamdi Yazır, Şehbenderzade Filibeli Ahmed Hilmi Efendi, İzmirli İsmail Hakkı, Mehmet Akif, Cemil Meriç, Nurettin Topçu, Sezai Karakoç, İsmet Özel.
PHIL 531 Early Turkic Thought And Mythology: Advanced Course
This course examines pre-Islamic and early Islamic Turkic thought such as Tengrism, Turkic myths, toere (töre), Turkic thought of state and society and the thinkers such as Yusuf Has Hajib, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Ahmad Yasawi.
PHIL 532 Theories of Metaphysics in the First Classical Period
This course examines metaphysical theories formulated in the first classical period of Islamic philosophy in the framework of the problems such as the meaning of being, the relationship between being and unity, potentiality and actuality, universals, ideas, causality, unity and multiplicity, emanation, the relationship between God and universe, nature and habit, origination and possibility, theories of creation, free will, the problem of evil. Students read selected texts from the works of Kindi, Farabi, Avicenna, Baqillani, Juweini, Qadi Abd al-Jabbar.
PHIL 533 Theories of Metaphysics in the Second Classical Period
Ghazali is a cornerstone not only in kalam, but also in the appropriation of the heritage of Muslim peripatetic philosophers such Kindi, Farabi, and Ibn Sina by the later generations of thinkers. This course focuses mainly on the metaphysical theories of Ghazali, Razi, Sayyid Sharif Jurjani, on the one hand, and Ibn Rushd, Qonevi, on the other hand. The thinkers of this period discuss the same problems (God, nature, essence and existence, causation, theories of creation, free will, etc.), as the thinkers of the first classical period. However, the theories and problems gained more specific and complex formulations in this period. Students read selected texts from Juweinî, Ghazali, Averroes, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Sayyid Sharif al- Jurjanî, and Qonawî.
Elective Courses of PHIL 540-559 Ancient Philosophy
PHIL 540 Early Greek Philosophy
This course focuses on pre-Socratic philosophy from its beginning. The following figures are included: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Pythagoras, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Zeno, Melissus, Democritus, and Diogenes of Apollonia. Other Greek authors such as Hippocrates, Sophocles, and Thucydides will be read as a requirement of the context.
PHIL 541 Plato’s Earlier Dialogues
Plato is arguably the greatest philosopher of all time. In order to trace Plato’s development of thought, we focus on his Socratic dialogues such Apology, Crito, Laches, Lysis, Charmides, Ion, and Euthyphro.
PHIL 542 Plato’s Middle Dialogues
This course deals with his middle dialogues such as Meno, Phaidon, Republic, Symposium, etc. Theory of forms and the problem of soul, morality, critique of art are the main topics of the course.
PHIL 543 Plato’s Later Dialogues
This course focuses on Plato’s later dialogues such as Theaetetus, Sophist, and Parmenides. The central problem of course is the problem of knowledge (episteme) and being.
PHIL 544 Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics
This course focuses on Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics. Aristotle’s other texts related to epistemology may be added to the study. Aristotle is concerned with the problem of knowledge and essence, which will be the central themes of the course. Besides, the texts from Averroes’ commentary on Posterior Analytics are read.
PHIL 545 Aristotle’s Metaphysics
Aristotle’s Metaphysics is one of the most influential works in the entire history of philosophy. This course gives a close reading of this monumental work.
PHIL 546 Plotinus
Plotinus is a Hellenistic philosopher known as the founder of neo-platonism. He influenced deeply the thinkers and philosophers from both Islamic and Christian philosophical traditions such as Farabi, Ibn Sina, Pseudo Dionysius, Erigena, etc. This course focuses on his Enneads in order to explore his theory of emanation, beauty, goodness, truth, etc.
PHIL 547 Ethical Theories in Ancient Philosophy
Humans became a central problem of philosophy through the Sophists philosophers in Ancient Greek. This course examines relativistic ethical theories of Sophists, moral realism of Sokrates, heterogeneous ethical theories of Socratic schools, Plato’s theory of ethics which is based on his understanding of the tripartite soul, Aristotle’s ethics of eudemonia, and the theories of Hellenistic schools such as Sceptics, Epicureans, Stoics.
PHIL 548 Nietzsche
This class tries to understand the general place of the philosophy of Nietzsche in the history of philosophy on the basis of the concepts of nihilism, will to power and overman, etc.
Elective Courses of PHIL 560-579 Western Philosophy
PHIL 560 Medieval Christian Philosophy
This course examines important theologians and philosophers of medieval Christianity such as Origenes, Augustinus, Boethius, Erigena, Abelardus Aquinas, William of Ockham and discusses its central problems such as the problem of universals, God, the problem of evil, divine attributes, divine foreknowledge, and human free will, logic.
PHIL 561 Ethical Theories in Western Philosophy
This course examines major ethical perspectives in Western tradition such as Christian ethics, cultural relativism, deontological ethics, pragmatism, utilitarianism, existential ethics, etc., and the theories of main figures such as Aquinas, Hume, Kant, Mill, Rawls, Nietzsche, Sartre.
PHIL 562 Descartes
Descartes is known as the founder of modern philosophy. This course focuses exclusively on Descartes’ philosophy through a close reading of his important works such as Meditations on First Philosophy, Principles of Philosophy, etc.
PHIL 563 Leibniz
We examine the constitutive elements of metaphysics of Leibniz, his understanding of physics, his criticism of Cartesianism, his position against Locke in the context of rationalism, empiricism debates, his teaching on monads, his views on pre-established harmony, theodicy and evil, small perceptions, God, mathesis universalis, and reconciliation mission.
PHIL 564 Kant
This course enables students to focus on Kant’s epistemology, ethics, and his criticism of metaphysics through major works such as Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, Critique of Judgment, etc.
PHIL 565 Hegel and Husserl in Phenomenology
Hegel and Husserl are two major philosophers of Western philosophy and formulated different phenomenologies. Husserl is not sympathetic to Hegel as a philosopher. However, there are some common points along with important discrepancies between their epistemological theories. This course compares their epistemological theories and explores how they developed different strategies in formulating their phenomenologies. Husserl’s Ideas and Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit are the main texts of reading.
PHIL 566 Hegel
This course dealt with Hegel’s system in focusing on his essential books such as Phenomenology of Spirit, Reason in History, etc. in reference to the surrounding German philosophical tradition.
PHIL 567 Hume
This course deals with important themes in Hume’s philosophy such as the problem of knowledge, causation, his philosophy of religion, etc. Students read selected texts from his related works.
PHIL 568 Husserl
This course focuses on Husserl through his various works such as Logical Investigations, Ideas, On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time, Cartesian Meditations, and Crisis of European Sciences. We analyze the selected texts from these works and examine certain issues of Husserl’s phenomenology such as temporality, inter-subjectivity, and corporeality.
PHIL 569 Husserl’s Logical Investigations
This course focuses primarily on Logical Investigations, which is one of Husserl’s major books. Logical Investigations are very influential in the shaping of contemporary Continental philosophy in 20. century. The foundations of logic, the problem of knowledge, consciousness are the main topics of the course.
PHIL 570 Husserl’s Ideas
Ideas are characterized by Husserl’s transcendental turn. We focus on transcendental phenomenology with a close reading of Husserl’s Ideas.
PHIL 571 Husserl’s Cartesian Meditations
This course focuses on reading and commenting on Cartesian Meditations, which is very important for the Cartesian formulation of phenomenology.
PHIL 572 Husserl: Inner Time Consciousness
This course examines Husserl’s analysis of inner time consciousness, essential modes of consciousness such as time, perception, memory, and imagination for disclosure, and discussing the problems related to intentionality through phenomenological reflection.
PHIL 573 Heidegger
Heidegger is one of the most important philosophers of metaphysics in 20.century, who deepened Husserlian phenomenology in the context of the question of being. This course analyzes the basic concepts of Heidegger’s philosophy and discusses his ideas about metaphysics, the relationship between phenomenology and ontology. The student read selected texts from Being and Time and his other important works.
PHIL 574 Marxism and Critical Theory
Critical Theory is a negative philosophy and one of the main philosophical traditions in Continental Philosophy. This course examines the writings of Karl Marx such as Manuscripts, the German Ideology, the Grundrisse, Capital, and the important works of the leading figures of Critical Theory such as Horkheimer, Benjamin, Adorno, and Habermas, who are inspired by Marx, although they are critical of him.
PHIL 575 Rousseau and Philosophy of Enlightment
The critics made by Rousseau, who is one of the preeminent Enlightenment philosophers, towards the modern society structure. Rousseau’s understanding of nature and culture. His perspective on the concepts of civilization and private property. His theory of “natural man”. Influences inherited from Hobbes and Spinoza; his effect on Kant and Marx. The development of language, thought and civilization. His critics on the development of sciences and arts. The concept of inequality among mankind. His views on education. Contractualist tradition and his suggestions.
PHIL 576 German Idealism
German Idealist tradition is one of the most influential and richest philosophical traditions in history so that some compare it to Ancient Greek philosophical tradition. This course examines the German idealists such as Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. The students read selected texts from Prologomena, Science of Knowledge, System of Transcendental Idealism, and Differenzschrift.
PHIL 577 Continental Rationalists
Rationalism and empiricism are two rival philosophical positions in Western philosophy. The former is characterized as an epistemological position attributed to the leading philosophers of Continental Europe and the latter is characterized as an epistemological position attributed to the leading philosophers of Britain. Descartes is both the first representative of rationalism and the initiator of modern philosophy, which can be seen as an attempt to answer the questions caused by Cartesian philosophy. This course focuses primarily on the epistemological and metaphysical theories of the Continental rationalist philosophers such as Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. Students read selected texts from the major works of these philosophers.
PHIL 578 British Empiricists
This course focuses on British empiricist philosophers such as Locke, Hume, and Berkeley. We discuss certain issues such as sources of knowledge, mind, perception, the role of reason in cognition, causality, ideas, truth, and the foundation of logic.
Elective Courses of PHIL 580-598 Disciplines and Themes of Philosophy
PHIL 580 Theory of Knowledge: Advanced Course
This course introduces the main problems of knowledge in detail and gives a close reading of the works of major philosophers from Ancient, Islamic, and Western philosophical traditions.
PHIL 581 Metaphysics: Advanced Course
This course deals with major problems and themes such as what metaphysics is, existence, essence, God, substance, reason, etc. in giving a close reading of the texts from the works of major metaphysical thinkers such as Parmenides, Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle, Ibn Sina, Heidegger, etc.
PHIL 582 Aesthetics
The course examines beauty and artworks at the graduate level and sheds light on the arts of different traditions. Students read selected texts from essential works of major philosophers such Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, Avicenna, Kant, Hegel, Nietzsche, Hartmann, Heidegger, and Adorno.
PHIL 583 Philosophy of Biology
Philosophy of biology is a branch of philosophy of science which deals with various problems and issues raised by biology in relating biology to the issues such as causation and explanation, progress, history, reductionism. The issues are discussed in the context of ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. This course comprehensively studies philosophical matters of biological knowledge.
PHIL 584 The Problem of Evil in the History of Philosophy
Can “Evil” be defined, what are the challenges, can it be thought apart from “to agathon”? Is it possible to envision the good and the evil independent of the concepts of “Algos-hedone”? “Is there an Evil in itself / Absolute evil? Where does evil fall in the distinction of Aesthesis/noesis? Is the human soul prone to evil? When considered in the context of “To on – me on” problems, does the notion of “kakon” fall under the category of ethical ground, or does it have ontological and epistemological implications? Can philosophy alone answer the question of evil, or does it have to be nourished by resources such as religion, law, art, etc.?
PHIL 585 Foundations of Democracy
Historical Background: the State and the tripartite society structure in Ancient Greece; pre-democratic era, formation of city-states, slavery system, ancient economy, loan and interest problem, Solon period and reforms, formation of assemblies, the conditions that led to the coming of Peisistratos, the Peisistratos reforms and the establishment of democracy, similarities between the historical conditions in Ancient Greece and the English Magna Carta and the French Revolution.
Philosophical Background: Can the opinion of the majority be a criterion of truth? Sokrates’ struggle with ethical relativism. Apology of Socrates and his execution. Can democracy be seen as a type of “Western ideology”? Has democracy transformed into a new “religion”? Is democracy a final form? What are its metaphysical grounds? Is a perspective possible in terms of the Heraclitus-Parmenides conflict?
PHIL 586 Philosophy of Language: Advanced Course
This course surveys key topics such as meaning, the relationship between meaning and truth, usage, origin, and nature of language in philosophy of language at the graduate level. The course will discuss the theories from Ancient, classical Islamic, and Western, especially from Analytic philosophy in which philosophy of language became central.
PHIL 587 Philosophy of Civilization
In this course, we examine the emergence of “civilization” as an idea, the concepts of “madinah”, “madaniyyah”, “umran” and the views of Farabi and Ibn Khaldun; Roman period and concepts of “cives”, “civitas”; perception of East and West, the myth of Babylon, “Homoios” and “heteros”; the rediscovery of Antiquity and Humanism after the Middle Age; the myths of Lucifer and Prometheus, the effects of enlightenment philosophy, the critiques brought by Cemil Meriç. J.-P. Sartre, F. Fanon, Edward Said in terms of colonialism and post-colonialism; the theses of the end of ideologies and the clash of civilizations, Post-modernism, and its ending.
PHIL 588 Pantheism
Pantheism is both philosophical and religious thought. This course examines different formulations of pantheism in the history of philosophy and religion. Students read the selected texts from pantheistic philosophers and religious texts. The works of Plotinus, Ibn Arabi, Qonevi, and Spinoza are comparatively examined together with the texts from Eastern thought.
PHIL 589 Philosophy of Science
This course examines basic concepts and problems of philosophy of science; the quiddity and trait of science, magic, how to differentiate it from other types of knowing, the structure of scientific development; the views of leading figures of philosophy of science such as Kuhn, Feyerabend, Popper.
PHIL 590 Political Philosophy: Advanced Course
This course will initially discuss the concept of politics, political science, and political philosophy. For classical political philosophy, it will focus on Plato’s and Farabi’s philosophies. This will be followed by a discussion of the state of nature, social contract, and the emergence of government in Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. A separate discussion will be devoted to Ibn Khaldun’s concept of the state and politics. The course will then discuss various theories about justifying the state, namely social contract, tacit consent, hypothetical consent, Utilitarianism, and Anarchism (which rejects the state). Further, it will focus on the question “who should rule?”. This part will include ideas and practices of democracy, Plato’s fierce opposition to democracy, Rousseau’s concept of the general will, and his idea of the republic. Finally, the course will discuss the concepts of liberty and freedom, the place of liberty, justifications of liberty, freedom of thought, liberalism, its critiques, and Rawlsian theory of justice.
PHIL 591 Moral Philosophy: Advanced Course
This course examines the main topics of moral philosophy at the graduate level. Students read selected texts from Ancient, Islamic, and Western traditions together with contemporary issues caused by scientific and technological developments in the present day.
PHIL 592 Historical Sources of Western Thought
In this course, we trace Greek and Islamic roots of Western tradition in philosophy, literature, and scientific thought. The works of Western philosophers, poets, and man of letters are comparatively examined with the Muslim and Greek sources.
PHIL 593 Philosophy of Religion: Advanced Course
PHIL 594 Issues in Science and Religion
This course focuses on the relation between Modern Science and Islam. We present important contemporary scientific theories such as Special and General Theory of Relativity, Quantum Theory, Big Bang Theory, Theory of Evolution, Modern Neurology. Then we evaluate and discuss some important implications of these theories for theistic religions and Islam specifically. Our course also aims to outline possible approaches to the relation between science and religion.
PHIL 596 Comparative History of Philosophy
The course is divided into two sections: literary and philosophical. In the first half students will engage with literary classics of the pre-modern era from the 2nd millennium BCE to the 14thcentury CE, A major concern of this section of the course is to engage students with primary texts that they will be expected to examine closely. Key questions include: How do religious beginnings inform creative expression and the writing of universal histories?. How does a text become a classic? The second half of the course will expose students to historical theories and literary approaches to civilization studies through relevant classical texts. We shall choose a text each week and a perspective in this objective and try to understand what kind of historical framework emerges out of this text.
PHIL 598 Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence
The main aim of the course is to look at the philosophical implications of artificial intelligence. The course will consider the arguments about the possibility of creating artificial intelligence, as well as the metaphysical, ethical, and social implications of human interaction with intelligent machines. Some of the questions we will tackle are: Could a computer have a mind? What kind of machine would this be? Exactly what do we mean by ‘mind’ anyway? Could computers have free will or moral responsibility? The course will be interdisciplinary covering topics from Philosophy, Neuroscience, Psychology, Computer Science, and Linguistics. Hence can be of wider interest.